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天下兴亡,匹夫有责
The Rise and Fall of All Under Heaven Is the Responsibility of Every Individual.
讲话用例
xi jinping s'citation
在中国人民抗日战争的壮阔进程中,形成了伟大的抗战精神,中国人民向世界展示了天下兴亡、匹夫有责的爱国情怀,视死如归、宁死不屈的民族气节,不畏强暴、血战到底的英雄气概,百折不挠、坚忍不拔的必胜信念。伟大的抗战精神,是中国人民弥足珍贵的精神财富,永远是激励中国人民克服一切艰难险阻、为实现中华民族伟大复兴而奋斗的强大精神动力。
In the broad process of fighting in the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, there emerged the great spirit of resistance. The Chinese people demonstrated, for the world to see, their patriotic conviction that the rise and fall of all under heaven is the responsibility of every individual; their sense of national integrity that empowers them to look death in the face and never yield; their fearless mettle that gives them the courage to fight to the bitter end; and their unyielding, indomitable belief in victory. The great spirit of resistance is a valuable spirit of the Chinese people and will always be an enormous source of inner strength spurring the Chinese people to overcome all manner of hardships and realize the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
习近平同志在纪念中国人民抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利69周年座谈会上的讲话
Speech at the Commemoration of the 69th Anniversary of the Victory of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and World War II
2014-09-03
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术语释义
EXPLANATION
天下的兴盛与衰亡,即便是普通百姓也有义不容辞的责任。源于明末清初著名思想家顾炎武所说“保国者,其君其臣,肉食者谋之;保天下者,匹夫之贱,与有责焉耳矣”。“天下”在古代多指天子统治或名义下的中国全部疆域,而顾炎武提出“天下”与“国”是完全不同的概念:“国”仅代表帝王一家一姓,而“天下”所代表的则是整个中华民族及中华文明的统系。近代思想家梁启超等继承了顾炎武的这一思想,并将其概括为“天下兴亡,匹夫有责”,使语意更为显豁、语势更为有力,后经许多政治家、思想家的引用,这句话最终成为中国家喻户晓的名言。近代以来,它对激发中国人的爱国主义精神,唤醒人们心系民族和国家安危并以天下为己任,产生了巨大影响。
The view that ordinary people also share responsibility for the fate of the country originated with the famous late Ming- and early Qing-dynasty thinker Gu Yanwu. He stated that the ruler and his officials were in charge of the state apparatus, but guarding all under heaven was the responsibility of every individual, no matter how lowly they may be. In pre-modern China, all under heaven referred to the whole territory of China ruled either directly or nominally by the Son of Heaven. By “state” Gu Yanwu, however, meant something entirely different: the state only refers to one imperial house, while “all under heaven” refers to the whole of the Chinese nation and Chinese civilization. The modern Chinese thinker Liang Qichao built on this idea and put it in more general terms stating that “the rise and fall of all under heaven is the responsibility of every individual,” turning it into a clearer and more forceful statement. It was subsequently quoted by so many statesmen and thinkers that it became a household phrase. Ever since, this saying has had tremendous influence in arousing the patriotic spirit among the people of China and making them assume responsibility for the fate of their country.
引例
CITATION
易姓改号,谓之亡国;仁义充塞,而至于率兽食人,人将相食,谓之亡天下......保国者,其君其臣、肉食者谋之;保天下者,匹夫之贱,与有责焉耳矣。
(顾炎武《日知录》卷十三)
(换姓改朝,叫作“亡国”;而仁义道德得不到发扬,以至于统治者率领野兽吃人,民众也相互残害,叫作“亡天下”。保有国家,只是帝王大臣及达官贵人去谋划;而保有天下,即便是地位卑微的普通百姓,也有责任。)
When one dynasty is replaced by another, it means the state of the old dynasty perishes. When benevolence and righteousness are obstructed to the point that the powerful lead others to exploit people and people fight each other, it means all under heaven perishes... Safeguarding the state is the concern of rulers, ministers, and officials; while safeguarding all under heaven is the responsibility of every individual, no matter how lowly they may be.
(Gu Yanwu: Record of Daily Study)
顾炎武之言曰:天下兴亡,匹夫之贱与有责焉。
(麦华《论今日疆臣之责任》)
(顾炎武有句话说:天下兴亡,即使是地位卑微的普通百姓也有责任。)
Gu Yanwu said: The rise and fall of all under heaven is the responsibility of every individual, no matter how lowly they may be.
(Mai Hua: The Responsibilities of Officials in Charge of Current Border Affairs)
今欲国耻之一洒,其在我辈之自新......夫我辈则多矣,欲尽人而自新,云胡可致?我勿问他人,问我而已。斯乃真顾亭林所谓“天下兴亡,匹夫有责”也。
(梁启超《饮冰室文集》卷三十三“痛定罪言”三引)
(现在要一洗国家蒙受的耻辱,关键在于我们这些人的自我更新......我们人数当然很多,若是要所有人都实现自我更新,怎么可能做到呢?不必问其他人能否做到,只问自己能否做到就可以了。这确实像顾炎武所说的“天下兴亡,匹夫有责”啊!)
The key to wiping out our country’s humiliation lies in our self-renewal... We have a large population, so it is impossible for every individual to achieve such self-renewal. We should do it ourselves whether or not others can also do it. This is just like what Gu Yanwu once said,"The rise and fall of all under heaven is the responsibility of every individual."
(Liang Qichao: Collected Works from the Ice- drinker’s Studio)
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